There are no Jewish communities in Antarctica.
During the Summer months, you could probably find a few American Jews staying on McMurdo Station when its population peaks at over 1000. There are other stations scattered around Antarctica, manned by various countries, however it would be a hit-or-miss to find a Jew in one of them.
Antarctica tourism has been steadily growing. Today it is possibly reaching around 50,000 per year. My guess is: there are some, American, European, and Israeli Jews visiting, but I would not rely on finding them for a minyan.
I had the fortune to go to Antarctica with the Unstoppables from Australia. We were a group of over 100 entrepreneurial minded people coming together to create global change. I have never been in one place with so many creative, intelligent and interesting people. Many companies were formed on the boat, and we collaborated on projects.
Please G-d I am looking at organizing a Kosher Antarctica trip for 2016. Please contact Rabbiben@travelingrabbi.com for more info